Random Access Memory

All computers contain what is called RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory. RAM is a form of computer data storage, which takes the form of integrated circuits. An integrated circuit is a smaller version of an electronic circuit made of semiconductor material. This allows the data to be accessed at random, hence random access memory. RAM is most often associated with volatile types of memory such as DRAM, which stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory. In fact, most types of RAM used in modern computers are volatile. With this type of memory, any information on the computer is lost when that computer is powered down. With non-volatile memory, information is retained even after the computer is powered down.

The most common type of RAM found in personal computers and workstations is DRAM. Unlike Static RAM (SRAM), DRAM requires its storage cells to be refreshed every few milliseconds. It operates on the principle that currents move in one direction or another, whereas SRAM operates on the principle that storage cells will hold the charge in place. The way DRAM works is by sending a charge through a column, which will activate the transistor at each bit contained in the column. DRAM contains memory cells that have a transistor and capacitor paired together, which is why they must be refreshed constantly.

In 1966, Dr. Robert Dennard invented DRAM while working at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center and was awarded a U.S. patent for it in 1968. In 1969, Honeywell, a major conglomerate company, requested that Intel make a DRAM, which would use a 3-transistor cell that Honeywell had developed. In 1970, it became the Intel 1102. When it was discovered that the 1102 had many problems, Intel came up with an improved design, which became the Intel 1103, released in 1970. The Intel 1102 never made it to the computer market. The Intel 1103 came to be the first commercially available DRAM memory. It was the worlds first 1K dynamic RAM and marked the turning point in the integrated circuit’s history. With the Intel 1103, a significant amount of information could now be stored on one chip. Its capacity to hold a large amount of data led to the Intel 1103 replacing core memories and it rose to become the industry standard. The Intel 1103 became the largest selling semiconductor in the world in 1972.

Core memory, which is also known as magnetic core memory, is a RAM system developed at MIT in 1949 by Jay Forrester, a pioneer in the early development of digital computers and inventor of random-access, coincident-current magnetic storage. It went on to become the dominant form of memory in the 1950’s and was used until the late 1970’s. Core memory is a non-volatile memory, which includes special logic in the memory controller. This is to ensure that the location of the memory’s content cannot be altered without the voltages being at the proper levels. The purpose of this is to prevent random changes to the content of the memory when power is lost and restored.

Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) is a form of semiconductor memory. In most cases, SRAM is used for cache memory, because it can be accessed much quicker than DRAM. It is also used in video cards to provide the card with RAM digital to analog conversion. An SRAM cell can be in one of three different states; standby, reading and writing. Standby occurs when the circuit is not in motion. Reading is when data has been requested from the chip and writing is updating the contents of the chip. While SRAM is more expensive than DRAM, it is faster and uses slightly less power than DRAM does. SRAM is used when low bandwidth and/or low power is a factor. It provides an easier user interface and allows more random access than many types of DRAM. SRAM boasts a more complicated structure than DRAM and is less dense. Therefore, it is not used as the main form of memory in personal computers.

Another type of memory chip is Extended Data Output (EDO), which is a common type of asynchronous DRAM, and is sometimes referred to as hyper page mode DRAM. In addition, EDO improves read time on microprocessors such as the Intel Pentium. EDO RAM is a lot like fast page mode DRAM, which is memory that is slightly faster than DRAM. Despite the name, fast page mode (FPM) DRAM is in fact, the technology with the slowest memory in modern PCs. When it comes to manufacturing costs, EDO and FPM cost the same amount, yet EDO is so prominent in the computer market that it has become cheaper than FPM, despite being the superior memory. EDO memory is found in most of the later models of Pentium-class PCs. Support from the system chipset is required for EDO memory. Since the invention of EDO in 1994, many of the newer Pentium computers do support EDO, while older systems do not.

Another version of RAM is Burst Extended Data Out (BEDO) RAM, which is an improvement on the conventional asynchronous RAM. BEDO memory is simply EDO memory combined with pipelining technology that has special latches, which serve to provide faster access time than basic EDO. One difference between BEDO memory and EDO memory is that BEDO memory can accommodate much higher bus speeds than EDO can. BEDO memory improves the performance of DRAM, for just about the same cost to produce it. It is said that BEDO is a bigger improvement over EDO than EDO is over FPM. However, BEDO never became popular with consumers. In terms of performance, while BEDO competes with SDRAM, it cannot beat it in the market.

Most computers manufactured in the last few years that are designed to use the modern asynchronous RAM actually support FPM. It is safe to use on the majority of new computers because it does not require any unique compatibility or support. The disadvantage, however, is that FPM offers a lower performance than the majority of other memory technologies.

Examples of other commonly used types of RAM are most types of ROMs (Read Only Memory), and NOR-FlASH, which is a flash memory. Flash memory is computer memory that can be erased and reprogrammed. It is generally found in memory cards as well as USB flash drives. The purpose of flash memory is to store and transfer data between computers.

Both the NOR and NAND Flash memories were invented by Dr. Fujio Masouka when he was working for Toshiba, approximately 29 years ago. It was named flash memory because the process of erasing the memory contents is much like the flash of a camera, according to a colleague of Dr. Masouka’s at Toshiba. Dr. Masouka first presented flash memory at the IEE 1984 International Electron Devices Meeting, which was held in San Francisco, CA. The potential of the flash memory was recognized by Intel and they introduced the initial NOR type flash chip in 1988.

At the 1987 International Electron Devices Meeting, Toshiba unveiled the NAND flash, which allowed for faster erase and write times while still providing full address and data buses. In turn, this allows any location to be randomly accessed. This led to flash memory being able to replace older ROM chips that were used to store program codes that did not require frequent updates. NAND has as much as ten times the endurance of the NOR flash.

NOR flash and NAND flash are different in two ways. One is that they provide different interfaces for reading and writing memory. When it comes to reading, NOR allows random-access, while NAND only allows page access. The other is that the connections of each memory’s individual cells are different. NOR flash was developed as a more economical ROM than EEPROM as well as a more convenient rewritable ROM.

Flash memory is a type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory,) that is erased in chunks rather than as a whole. Since Flash memory is cheaper than EEPROM, it has become the main technology in cases where a significant amount of non-volatile storage, as well as solid state, is needed. For example, PDAs and digital cameras use flash memory. It is popular in the video game console market, because it is often used in place of battery-powered SRAM and EEPROMs for the purpose of storing game data.

EEPROM is a non-volatile memory type used in computers and other electronic devices for the purpose of storing small amounts of data that need to be retained when power is removed, such as during device configuration. Manufacturers such as Mitsubishi, Hitachi, Maxwell Technologies, and Samsung Electronics use EEPROM in their products.

George Perlegos designed the EEPROM chip in 1978 while working for Intel. Perlegos then left Intel and formed a company called Seeq Technology where he went on to develop the first EEPROM that was fully functional. He modified the memory chip by integrating the capacitor circuit and oscillator directly into the memory chip itself. One disadvantage of the EEPROM is that, while it can be reprogrammed, there is a limit to the number of times it can be altered. Because of this, EEPROM chips are most widely used to store configuration data, which doesn’t require frequent programming of the computer’s BIOS code. Today’s EEPROMs are able to be rewritten a maximum of a million times.

Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) is a type of memory chip that has the ability to retain data when the power is cut, i.e. a non-volatile memory. Once it has been programmed, the only way to erase the data is to expose it to a strong ultraviolet light. An EPROM chip that has been programmed can retain data between 10 and 20 years and can be read as many times as needed. Dov Frohman, an engineer from Israel, invented EPROM in 1971. He developed the concept in 1970, when he was in the process of troubleshooting problems in one of the early Intel products. At this time, there were only two types of memories; RAM and ROM. EPROM has features of both these types of memories. While it is non-volatile, like RAM, it is also easy to reprogram. The EPROM was a significant addition to the personal computer industry and had the distinction of being the most profitable product used by Intel far into the 1980s.

While there are many different types of RAM, the three main types are SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM), DDR (Double Data Rate SDRAM,) and Rambus Dram (RDRAM.) SDRAM stands for synchronous dynamic random access memory. This is a term used to describe dynamic random access memory with a synchronous interface. The SDRAM waits for a signal from the computer’s internal clock before responding to any input. By doing so, it synchronizes itself with the computer’s system bus. This process means that the chips within the computer operate under a more complicated pattern of operation than DRAM, which is not synchronized with the computer’s clock.

Double Data Rate SDRAM, or DDR SDRAM, is a faster version of SDRAM. It doubles the rate of transfer over SDRAM by using a clock cycle. It uses a similar parallel bus to SDRAM, but is physically incompatible with DDR, which makes it easier to implement than RDRAM. Since the DDR2 SDRAM surpasses DDR SDRAM, it is at times, referred to as DDR1 SDRAM. DDR SDRAM began being used as memory for most PCs beginning in 2000. The original intent was to provide minor enhancements to the DDR SDRAM that boasted higher clock rates and slightly deeper pipelining. The development and introduction of DDR3 SDRAM in 2007 was anticipated to quickly replace DDR and DDR2.

DDR2 SDRAM is the offspring of SDRAM and was first introduced in 2003. However, due to latency problems, it never outperformed the original DDR. The DDR2 was competing with the standard DDR by the end of 2004.

A type of memory used in certain portable electronic devices is Mobile DDR SDRAM (MDDR.) It is used in cell phones, digital audio players, and other handheld devices. MDDR operates at a higher voltage than DDR SDRAM, allowing a reduction in power consumption.

Rambus Incorporated, which was founded in 1990, provides high-speed interface technology. The company is well known for introducing the DDR-SDRAM memory. In 1996, an agreement was reached with the Intel Corporation, which obligated them to use RDRAM, until 2002, as the main memory technology for all Intel platforms.

Rambus Dram (RDRAM) is a different technology than SDRAM. It uses a special high-speed data bus, which is called The Rambus channel. Because the RDRAM is such high-speed memory, it generates much more heat than most other types of chips. To counteract this, Rambus chips have a long thin wafer shaped heat spreader designed to keep the chip from over heating. RDRAM is the only memory that Intel uses for their Pentium 4. In 1999, the first PC motherboards with RDRAM were put on the market. It has since been used in Nintendo 64 and Playstation 2.

There are disadvantages to using RDRAM, including cost, heat output, and delays in accessing information. These disadvantages caused RDRAM to become obsolete, at which time Rambus went on to support DDR and DDR2 in relation to video card technology. Rambus also developed XDR RAM technology. Extreme data rate DRAM is simply a RAM interface boasting high performance. It is in direct competition with DDR2 SDRAM technology as well as GDDR4 technology. The XDR eliminates the problems that interfered with the earlier forms of RDRAM, such as unusually high latency. This technology is most famously used in Sony’s Playstation 3.

Graphics Double Data Rate (GDDR) refers to the video memory used in modern video cards. There are 5 versions of GDDR, which are simply referred to as GDDR2, GDDR3, GDDR4, and most recently, GDDR5. The full name of this memory is Graphics Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (GDDR SDRAM.) “Double Data Rate” refers to the capacity of the memory for double-pumping data. The transference of information occurs on the rising and falling edges of the memory’s clock signal. The word “synchronous” simply means the memory can operate in sync with the computer system’s bus. Through this process, the memory is able to accept new instructions while previous instructions are still processing. This is known as instruction pipelining.

GDDR2 memory never became popular due to the fact that it produces a significant amount of heat because it operates at a much higher clock speed than the original GDDR. However, GDDR3 went on to become the most common technology in graphic memory today. It was an improvement over previous versions, simply because it can accommodate higher clock speeds, using less power, than its predecessor. Another advantage of the GDDR3 is that it uses 2 separate read and write data strobes, meaning the GDDR3 boasts a much faster read-to-write ratio than GDDR and GDDR 2 did. The GDDR 3 chips also feature hardware reset, meaning the memory can be wiped clean and can begin to receive new data if necessary. The differences between GDDR 3 and GDDR 4 are nominal. The GDDR 4 simply operates with fewer volts than its predecessor. It also has an increased memory performance over previous versions. However, only AMD has chosen to use the GDDR4 technology, and because of this, the only manufacturers that use it are Samsung and Hynix. This means the price of GDDR4 memory is relatively high in comparison to other memories.

The next major development in graphics is the GDDR5. It requires fewer volts than GDDR4, which allows it to run the memory with less heat output than other memory chips. This feature of the GDDR5 has the potential to help in overclocking, as well as the ability to reduce the cost of manufacturing it. The GDDR5 will also extend the battery life when used in a notebook PC. In addition to being manufactured by Samsung and Hynix, GDDR5 is also manufactured by Qimonda.GDDR5 is about four times faster than GDDR3 and uses 20% less power. In February of 2009, Samsung began mass-producing GDDR5. It has become the fastest double-data-rate memory chip, which processes data twice as fast as the current technology, providing a big boost to the gaming world. By the end of 2010, Samsung expects GDDR5 to be found in more than half of all high end PCs.

In 1995, research began on the MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory), which is a low power nonvolatile micro-memory cell technology. MRAM began in the 1940s at Harvard University when physicists worked with colleagues at MIT to develop the memory. Data is stored through the use of magnetic charges rather than the electrical ones used by DRAM. Magnetic polarity is used to store the data within the MRAM. The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded the research to develop technology that would serve as a general-purpose memory, enabling high density, high speed, and low power consumption. MRAM technology is reportedly faster and cheaper to make than non-volatile flash memory and is said to be a better choice for desktop systems than flash memory. The advantages of MRAM over flash technology likely means that it could last indefinitely. Proponents of the MRAM believe that because of the advantages it provides that it will one day be the dominant type of memory, or a true universal memory. Much like Flash memory, MRAM is able to retain data even when the power supply is cut off. This prevents the loss of data in the event the computer is unexpectedly shut off. Flash memory requires charge pumps, which consist of electronic circuits using capacitors as elements to store energy, which create higher or lower voltage power sources. With MRAM, these charge pumps are eliminated. Because MRAMs boast extremely fast read and write times, Motorola unveiled a 1 MB MRAM chip in June of 2002.

MRAM can be found in many of today’s technological devices, such as cell phones, digital cameras, notebooks, smart cards, personal computers, media players, book readers and cb amplifier. It is also used by aerospace and military systems. Today’s developments in the MRAM chip, which boasts high data stability, allow for the commercialization of what is a low-cost, yet advanced technology chip, which will be used in disk drives and network routers among other things.

Spin Torque Transfer (STT) RAM, which is also referred to as STT-MRAM or SpinRam, is an electric current that when applied to a magnet, changes the direction of the magnetic field. The current runs up and down, and from left to right, which causes change in the resistance of the current. STT-RAM hit the market in 2008 and has surpassed MRAM as the faster chip. It replaces embedded technologies like eSRAM, eFlash and DRAM. STT-RAM provides higher speed and lower power in automotive applications than eFlash. In addition, it is denser than eSRAM. In personal computers, STT-RAM replaces SRAM for high-speed cache, as well as replacing Flash for non-volatile cache, and PSRAM as well as DRAM to execute programs at a high speed. Grandis, which is the self-proclaimed “pioneer in STT-RAM,” developed the chip in conjunction with Hynix Semiconductor Inc. In addition, the two companies collaborated to integrate this technology into the future memory products of Grandis.

An April 1, 2008, press release issued by Grandis describes STT-RAM as “a next generation non-volatile (NVM) solution that overcomes the limitations of conventional magnetic RAM (MRAM) technologies.” STT-RAM also has a high quality of scalability, leading to greater density and lower costs. In addition, many existing mainstream memories use more power than STT-RAM does. It also provides its user with fast read/write capabilities, as well as unlimited endurance. Teams from both Grandis and Hynix Semiconductor Inc. worked together to implement this technology.

One advantage of STT-RAM is that it provides a combination of the benefits of SRAM, DRAM, and Flash memory. It also offers greater scalability than most other technology chips.

In October of 2008, Grandis received $6.0 million from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in order to fund the initial phase of research in the development of the STT-RAM chip. Because of its technological features, STT-RAM is very well suited for defense applications; hence the reason the research was funded by the DARPA.

At the forefront in the development of STT-RAM is Grandis, which led the development of the materials and structures needed to enhance the efficiency of the spin-transfer technology that is STT-RAM. In 2002, Grandis was founded in order to develop non-volatile technology through research in spintronics as well as to pursue new magnetic materials, which would lower the STT switching currents. STT is a fairly new phenomenon in physics that was first predicted in 1996 and demonstrated in 2000. Through much research and practice, Grandis enabled the development of a package that allowed the corporation of stand-alone/ embedded STT-RAM non-volatile memory into all of their memory products in the future.

In 2007, NYU and Allied Minds, which is an investment corporation that specializes in university business ventures, teamed up to start a company called Spin Transfer Technologies, LLC, in order to commercialize a more efficient form of computer memory called STT-MRAM. Researchers at NYU developed a new form of MRAM to provide non-volatile storage of critical data that is frequently updated. The STT- MRAM technology works by rapidly changing the magnetic orientation of nanometer scale magnets through the use of spin transfer technology. Allied Minds COO Marc Eichenberger expects STT- MRAM to be dominant in the next generation of technology.

In 1989, IBM discovered an important component in MRAMs development, which was the giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR.) In 1996, DARPA funded programs to begin independent research into MRAM. The companies that performed the research were Motorola, IBM, and Honeywell. In 2000, IBM combined with Infineon and formed a development program for MRAM, while in 2002; Motorola unveiled a 1MB MRAM prototype chip. By the end of 2004, IBM and Infineon had demonstrated a 16 MB prototype chip of the MRAM. In early 2006, Freescale Semiconductor was the first company to ever come out with an MRAM device. In February of the same year, Toshiba and NEC demonstrated an MRAM chip, which boasted the fastest speed ever recorded. The first commercial shipments were made in July of 2006.

In conclusion, RAM is a form of computer data storage found in all electronic devices. It is the heart of the computer system, and a key component in the storage of data. There have been many advances in computer memory over the last several decades, a trend that can only continue well into the future. The most important thing to know about RAM is that, the bigger RAM is, the faster and more efficiently the computer will run. RAM sizes vary from 128 MB all the way up to 1024 GB. The RAM on a computer can be tested by using a specialized memory test application. The subject of RAM is one that has been widely discussed among computer users and there is a surplus of information to be found about RAM on the World Wide Web. Educating yourself on everything from RAM types to the history of RAM can be achieved with a simple Internet search. RAM is a constantly evolving technology, which can only serve to boost the computer industry and allow users to perform various tasks at faster and faster speeds. While no one knows what the future of RAM will bring, there will always be advancements in the research and development of all types of computer memory.

Source from https://carcbradios.com/

How To Get Followers On Twitter

Everyone likes to think that the name of the game on Twitter is having a ton of followers. And while having many followers is better than having no followers, it’s not the most important thing.

Thye most important thing on Twitter is the retweet. And I will get in to the steps to get retweeted at another time.

I want to talk about getting followers. I’m going to say some things that may blow your mind but they are all true.

But, first things first. You don’t necessarily want a million followers. I know that flies in the face of conventional wisdom but its true. There are a lot of people out there that are obsessed with getting followers. You see #TeamFollowback in their bios and they are constantly monitoring who has unfollowed them. The more followers they have, the better they feel. I have even seen people selling Twitter accounts with 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 followers. And I feel sorry for the poor slob who buys that account because he’s really bought nothing.

Sometimes more isn’t better, sometimes it’s just more.

You want followers, sure but you want targeted followers. You want interested followers. You want ENGAGED followers.

And the best way to get engaged followers is to engage them first. Remember, you have to give before you can receive.

Here are the three simple steps that will make your Twitter experience more enjoyable (and hopefully, more profitable).

1. Search for the right people. You don’t want followers who have no interest in you or your business. This seems logical, right? You wouldn’t hang around people who have no interest in you in real life, would you? The same principle applies to Twitter.

When I first started out on Twitter with my @SportsBros account I wanted to connect with other sports fans because I wanted to get them to read my blog. So I would search for people discussing whatever sporting event was on at that time.

As a Lakers fan I would search the word “Lakers” and see who was talking about the Lakers at that time. You can do that with whatever product or service you business is in. As a writer, I also search for editors and different websites I would like to write for.

Twitter has a great search engine, you should be using it.

2. Follow them first. Once I identified the people who I thought would be interested in reading my blog I went ahead and followed them. I was building a list of people who were interested in sports and wanted to talk about it. And someday I wanted them talking about my articles.

3. Interact with them. After I followed them, in some cases, I would retweet or comment on something they had said. And I’m talking about that very night. I would follow about 10-15 people at a time and then watch my timeline and see what they had to say. And most of the time, after I interacted with them, they would follow me back.

I was doing my best to build a relationship. And that’s what you should be trying to do. It’s called “social” media for a reason.

But I wouldn’t just retweet or comment just for the sake of doing it. It had to be something that I was interested in. I wanted to start a conversation. Doing that, I slowly built up my followers. And the more I interacted with them the more I got retweeted and that got my work in front of more people which lead to more followers.

And that’s all there is to it. I would repeat those three steps over and over again. I did it for every new Twitter account that I created. (I have five, one for each blog I own.)

Right now I have a small core group of followers who will always retweet links to my newest articles. But more than that, I actually have some FRIENDS on Twitter. I kid you not. I can go to Cleveland, San Diego, Denver, Miami, Houston, San Francisco, New York and about half a dozen other cities and have a place to stay because of people I’ve met on Twitter. Those are the kinds of followers you want. (By the way, they can stay with me anytime as well.)

If you follow these simple rules you will be a success and maybe one day you will be crashing on my couch.

How to pan for gold in California

So you’re looking for gold….perhaps in all the wrong places, using the wrong tools, at the wrong time? Well, fret no longer. Panning for gold in California can be done properly with the right know-how and resources. First off, you may want to plan ahead because proper preparation will bring better results, which means better rewards, right? Continue reading “How to pan for gold in California”

Natural Gas Lines Require Updating

Gas lines can pose dangers as amply illustrated by the recent explosions in San Bruno. Many people are beginning to worry whether the same problems could happen in their neighborhood. Much of the nation’s infrastructure is badly in need of updating and if you feel your home lines need replacement or you experience a gas problem of any kind, we provide convenient same-day service to help put your mind to rest.

[Homeowners Bear Gas Line Responsibility]

Owning a home carries many responsibilities and among these is the care and maintenance of natural gas lines, a fact of which many people are unaware. Natural gas lines are covered by federal guidelines and regulations and it is recommended that periodic inspections of lines from the meter to the home be conducted, even when underground. Digging can be dangerous and is best left to experienced professionals who have the expertise to perform the service safely and determine whether the piping is in need of repair or replacement.

No repairs will be made without an accurate estimate being offered the customer. You will know what to expect in costs and the amount of time the work will take. Our professionally trained technicians specialize in repairing gas leaks, replacing faulty plumbing gas lines and installing gas lines.

One thing we can do to eliminate your maintenance worries in the future is relocate the meter closer to your home if your have buried gas lines. Once the gas utility approves the change, after we have installed the new configuration, the utility will be responsible for maintaining the lines. If you have buried lines, you are responsible for the following obligations.

Inspecting the lines periodically for leaks
Inspecting the pipes for corrosion if they awe made of metal
Making any necessary repairs or upgrades as needed

We will take care of these responsibilities for you and perform any necessary repairs. It is important to remain vigilant when you use natural gas and if you ever feel there is a problem or leak, you should immediately turn off the gas to your home at the cut-off valve located on the meter. This is usually on a pipe coming out of the ground and attaching to the meter. Turn the valve counter to the pipe to shut off gas. Keep the area around the meter clear of any obstructions to facilitate quick access to the valve. A wrench should be kept handy to fit the valve, and you should consider painting the valve white or a fluorescent color to make finding it in an emergency very easy for anyone to do.

If the procedure has been performed correctly, all pilot lights should go off in the house. When your gas is restored, it is important to re-light all pilot lights or dangerous levels of gas could build up in your home. Many pilots are temperamental or tricky to light. This is a task we are happy to perform for you to ensure your safety. If you cannot locate the cutoff valve, call So Cal Gas Co. and they will send a technician to do the job for you.

[Identifying Leaks or Hazards]

There are a number of ways to determine if you have a gas leak on your property. Check for any rotten-egg smells that are not food-related in your home. If your appliances and gas heat are not performing up to their usual standards, there may be a problem with the lines.

If buried gas lines have not been properly maintained, they may be subject to corrosion and leakage that could have lethal implications. There are a number of symptoms you can look for that may indicate your underground lines have a leak. These include the following.

You smell the distinct rotten-egg odor of natural gas in the area.
Dead vegetation anywhere near the buried line may indicate a leak
If your gas meter moves significantly when all appliances have been turned off, then there is a leak somewhere that needs to be addressed.
After you water your lawn or a good rain, if you see bubbles in the area over the buried line, there is a problem.

If you suspect an underground gas leak, immediately call 911. Do not attempt to investigate further. You may even consider evacuating your family from the home, but someone must be available to direct any emergency or contracting personnel who investigate the problem.

If your lines are found faulty, we can immediately address the situation with dispatch and efficiency. We will shut off your gas and perform the necessary inspections to determine what repairs are immediately required. We will assess whether your system could benefit from complete replacement of gas piping or by relocating the meter closer to you home, so you will no longer be required to maintain buried lines.

Naturals gas lines are in bad shape throughout there country and often have been improperly maintained. This is a problem for cities, utilities and private homeowners to address, as befits their area of responsibility. Faulty pipes that were over the 50-year limit for replacement caused the San Bruno explosion. Nearly two-thirds of the nation’s gas pipelines cannot be inspected by automatic robot technology, called “pigs” that are usually employed by utilities for routine inspections. The reason is that stainless steal pipes, which are highly corrodible, often follow twisted paths that make employing the underground robots impossible.

There’s nothing you can do about that situation, but you can maintain and replace your own lines to help insure your family’s safety. We can providing prompt courteous assistance to install or repair any gas line.

PTSD Isn’t a Post 9/11 Problem

Most would call Bill a hero, but he would vehemently disagree. You see, to Bill, his life has been a series of failures. Since coming home from the Vietnam War, he has been married, and then, divorced. His career has been non-existent, as evidenced by the 39 different jobs he has held in the past half century. His life is a constant battle. He does not feel comfortable inside of his own home, and the insomnia eats away at the rest his body so needs. He does not consider himself ill, as an illness “presumably has a remedy”.

There is no remedy for what ails Bill. Every night since he came home from the war, Bill has done a perimeter check around his house, sometimes two or three times throughout the night. Something, or rather someone, could use the cover of darkness to attack him. He cannot take any chances.

In his journal, Bill describes a scene in which his Army unit was sent to assist a Marine company that had been pinned down inside of a mountain ravine. The reports were not good. There were many casualties expected and their orders were simple: go in firing and kill everything that moves. He describes the limbs of fallen Marines, the smell of the dead bodies, and the screams of war he encountered. Then he drops the mic:

”I CANNOT HOLD BACK THE MEMORY or the tears. I am not in Vietnam, and it is not 1968. It is November, 2010. I am sitting at my home computer, looking at the country of Vietnam on Google Earth. “How long have I been out, back there in my mind?” I wonder. Looking at the clock on the wall, I realize it has only been seconds, maybe minutes. My flashbacks are like dreams. Scenes that took minutes and hours in real time only take seconds to replay in my mind.
“When is this shit going to stop?”

Never, Bill. Never.

This is life for Bill. Not a few moments spread over time. Not a bad dream in the middle of the night. Not a few thoughts of past bad deeds. This is his life. Everyday for over 40 years, the battle that the pages of history say ended on that fall day in 1968, continues to rage on right here at home. Bill is not alone and, yet he has no company. Thousands of war veterans suffer from PTSD and for those in the pre-9/11 era, help is rarely sought.

His wife could no long take the sleepless nights wondering who this man was sleeping next to her, screaming in his sleep ungodly things: Kill them all. Fucking Charlie!

His employers would not put up with the constant fits of anger towards co-workers or the countless times Bill showed up for work unfit to perform his job safely. Alcohol on his breath. Unkempt.

It wasn’t until he ran into a fellow Vietnam veteran at an AA meeting that Bill finally had an answer for why he was the way he was: he was ill. The VA psychiatrists were calling it Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Something his new friend told him had given him some relief was to write down all the things his mind was thinking That meant carrying around a notebook everywhere he went. If it meant interrupting the human resources manager of the factory he was interviewing with to scribble down a few lines, then so be it. Never mind that it might cost him the job (it did not).

Writing became his therapy, as it created a way for the thoughts inside of his head to be let out without the fear of hurting someone. Bill has dreams of turning his notebooks into a book or a blog. Something that he hopes would help his fellow Vietnam veterans find some sense in their post-war lives. Forget that it is 40 years too late.

Better late than never, right?

That is the only way life differs from war.

Top Google Adsense Alternatives

This article is cooked for the People who are searching for alternatives. Here’s a summary of connection arranged notification frameworks like Google Adsense, significance they repay you fiscally when visitors tapped on the coherent advancements indicated on your site.

In short – they are the Google AdSense decisions. We believe you find them important.

Disclaimer: We have not used most of the advancement orchestrates here at whatever time as of late. This is a try to discover and pass on to your care more choices of sensible advancements disseminated. Taking a gander at more purposes of interest (notification presentations, advancement size/bunch, payout limit, portion system, online overviews, et cetera) of any particular ad framework you plan to use on your website.

Google Adsense Alternatives

1) Reventue Hits

I recently discovered Revenue Hits and it’s sort of a nice challenger. I signed up and was quickly contacted by a manager to visualize however their ad platform for publishers work and that they have a large amount of options to form cash. Revenue hits could be a Performance Ad network, which suggests they pay you for results (CPA that is nice for several niches), however, they need CPM and CPC models too. Revenue hits has a stimulating platform that learns from your Ads therefore if you offer them a strive ensure to stay their ads running for 2-4 days to urge the most effective results. Another great point is that they need totally different proof channels on the market. you’ll be able to produce banner ads, sliders, pop -unders, buttons and additional. Revenue Hits pays on a internet thirty basis and that they issue payments via wire, Paypal and Payoneer! produce your account and obtain started in mere many minutes HERE!

2) Yllix

Yllix is a system I have heard a considerable measure in the most recent years that has a good CPM and numerous adaptation choices. Their landing page may look basic however their dashboard is extraordinary and its anything but difficult to begin. Yllix has Pop under advertisements, portable sidetracks, sliders, layer promotions and full page advertisements so you can get a decent CTR and profit with them. It is a best alternative for one thing and their approbation is quick.

3) Propeller Ads

Propeller Ads is one of the greatest pop-under systems accessible. They began dealing with 2011 and immediately formed into one of the greatest systems with awesome CPMs. They spend significant time in adapting sites for the accompanying corners: diversion, features/motion pictures, amusements, dating, funds, programming, betting and that’s only the tip of the iceberg. In the event that you’ve got one of this locales, you could profit with Propeller than with Adsense. They additionally have standards yet the pop unders work better by and large. Additionally, in the event that you’ve got portable movement, they’re an awesome Adsense elective as they work nearly with promotion organizes that adapt applications and versatile administrations prompting gigantic ROIs and extraordinary CPMs as well.

Propeller pays on a NET 30 premise and they have an awesome fill rate for level 2-3 nations. So in case you’re attempting to adapt movement from nations like India, Singapore, Turkey, South Africa, and so forth. Propeller has a huge stock for them as well.

4) Affiliate Marketing

I’m leaving subsidiary Marketing in the number 1 spot for some reasons. Offshoot Marketing means you’re offering an item or an administration from another venture (which implies you don’t need to create it) and you gain a Part of Money for that. You can discover a considerable measure of Affiliate Marketing projects on the net, and they can change from offering a $20 little item up to offering a $200 programming. The excellence of member advertising is that the more you know and test an item or administration, the more you can offer it.

Some associate projects can acquire you more than $60 for every deal relying upon the item and I really prescribe you test and reinforcement your deals by utilizing the item yourself (despite the fact that its not 100% important). In the event that you are a prevailing voice in a specialty, you can utilize it to support your business and develop considerably more.

There are more companies to come and most trusted ones as well stay tuned

What is Adsense

When i review web owners in regards to the methods which they use to be able to monetize their sites Google’s AdSense is actually the best reply. It’s a simple and fast way for web owners coming from all sizes to produce advertising which can be based on their written content.

Google Adsense

AdSense is often a ‘contextual’ promoting method in which editors simply add an item of program code for their sites in which allows The search engines assess what your current web site is approximately so as to function advertising with in which subject matter. This particular increases the likelihood of your current followers simply clicking this advertisement which often enhances the odds in which you’ll make anything from their store.

AdSense likewise have a range of different revenue revenues to be able to web owners which includes a site research application (you generate income by means of individuals browsing your current site) along with word of mouth tools (where you can create funds by means of promoting The search engines products).

AdSense is usually how i make around 45 % connected with our revenue as a regular doodlekit along with I would carefully propose the idea as a way connected with making money with any weblog – for these simply just starting.

What the Heck SEO is

What is SEO and How To Do it in 2018?

SEO is very very important for your site to rank on Google, without SEO you cannot rank on Google and if not ranking on Google then there is no importance of your website no matter how important or valuable information you write on it.

What is SEO?

SEO stands for search engine optimization, optimizing your blog is very important for your site to rank in Google.

Now how to Optimize your site, SEO is divided into two- On Page and Off Page.

SEO 2018

On page is basically done by keyword distribution and the amount of keywords should be used in your articles, too much of desired keyword also is harmful, it’ll be considered as keyword stuffing so the number of words in your article according to that the number of keywords should be in it.

Off Page is done by building backlinks to your blog, now backlinks are very important for your site. One must always build good high backlinks and not harmful backlinks, building unsafe and low quality backlinks to your site may lead it to penalty and it’ll be penalized by Google and your website won’t rank then.

Also, read: The Art to Make Money Blogging: For Beginners

SEO in 2018

Now as the time passes Google rolls many updates which included removing blog with low quality contents or with no used and valuable information or moving the website from 1st page to 6th 7th page as visitors does not find that blog providing valuable information,and if you don’t provide valuable information on your blog then visitors may not return again.

Mobile Optimization is very important now as Google has said in it’s update that all websites should be well mobile optimized as most of the users are now visiting and searching the things they want from mobile it self, smartphones are the new trend now so people find it easy to get the things they want from their mobile itself instead of opening laptop or tablet Etc.

So SEO in 2018 plays a very important role,so one must surely concentrate on optimizing their blog well for their website to rank in Google and to build a good audience for their website.

The Art to Make Money Blogging

So if you are looking on how to make money blogging then this is the right article for you.

Making money online through blogging is not hard, it just depends on how hard you work as well as with patience, patience plays a key role in make money blogging as people cannot wait to earn money ,they want instant money which is not actually possible.

You can start a blog on your interest and then provide valuable information to your users and when you have successfully build a good blog with good fixed readers and recurring readers who come back and visit your blog and come regularly it’ll be easy for you to earn from blogging.

Various ways of make money blogging

Now there are various ways by which you can make money blogging, For example CPI,CPC,CPA, Affiliate Marketing and many more. It all depends on what kind of a blog you have.

If you have a blog which focuses on a particular brand or a particular product then affiliate marketing is the best way to monetize your blog. You can join as an affiliate on various Websites which sell that product and then you provide your readers good detail on that product and explain it’s pros and cons and then give them information on where they can buy it in cheap and give them your affiliate link of that product or various websites and then when the users navigate to that product through your affiliate link and buys that product you get a commission based on the percentage they set for that particular category.


If you have a blog which is of entertainment niche which provides images,music videos and stuff then you can earn by google adsense, but for that you should have a site with good amount of visitors daily and then after google adsense approval you should have correct ADS placement and then whenever your visitors click on that ads you get a amount of money depending on their interest and country.

You can even earn by selling E-books from various sites by making a banner of your affiliate product.

So choose which suits you the most and you can make money blogging.

The Beginners Guide to What is Blogging

What is a Blog?

Well understanding what is a blog is not difficult, Blog is not a single term.


Blog is off many types, one who posts something regular on a particular topic to give you information on a regular basis is known as blog( Example: WordPress CMS). So you don’t have to search again and again for the thing you need until you are looking for something else. Whenever you want an update on your topic just visit that blog and it’ll be automatically updated by their owner.

What is a blog?

You have got a project from your college and you need some valuable information about it, You search it on Google and you land on a website filled with all the information you need in a single website, that means you don’t need to search anywhere else as you got the information you are looking for on that website alone, That is called a blog.


There are blogs too which is multi niche, that means you will find everything on it without even going on different websites, those blog maybe written or updated by a single user or as well as group of people, blog is not updated each and every second, well when the owner gets some valuable information to share they write it on their blog for the users to read.

What is a blog again?

Many many big reputed companies have their own blog, they update their blog regularly to provide information of their upcoming products or deals or price hike or price cut as it’ll be easy for them to update users from all over the world from their blog instead of informing individual.

Now for example Samsung has launched a mobile and 6 months later it has to push an update for that device but it may take time so they will simply update on their blog about that update and users can read detail and official statement on that update from their official blog.

Conclusion- Blogs are of many many types: reading blogs, information blogs, education blogs, Etc.